Construction Terms T, Construction terminology T

Construction Terms T speaks to construction terminology T and construction phrases.

It is quite simply a list of common home and commercial building construction terminology used by architects, consultants and contractors of all kinds enabling them to speak the same language.

T & G, tongue and groove A joint made by a tongue (a rib on one edge of a board) that fits into a corresponding groove in the edge of another board to make a tight flush joint. Typically, the subfloor plywood is T & G.

T&M
1. An abbreviation for a contracting method called Time and Materials
( 2) A written agreement between the owner and the contractor wherein payment is based on the contractor's actual cost for labor, equipment, materials, and services plus a fixed add-on amount to cover the contractor’s overhead and profit.

Tab The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.

Tackless Strip A wood strip with projecting points used to fasten a carpet around the edgr of a room, also called a tackstrip

Tagline A rope attached to a building component to help guide it asit is lifted bt a crane or derrick.

Tail beam A relatively short beam or joist supported in a wall on one end and by a header at the other.

Take off The material necessary to complete a job.

Tangential Shrinkage In wood shrinkage along the circumference of the log.

Tap To cut internal threads such as in a hole or nut.

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Tapered Edge The longitudinal edge of a sheet of gypsum board which is recessed to allow room for reinforcing tape and joint compound.

Taping The process of covering drywall joints with paper tape and joint compound.

T bar Ribbed, "T" shaped bars with a flat metal plate at the bottom that are driven into the earth. Normally used chain link fence poles, and to mark locations of a water meter pit.

Teco Metal straps that are nailed and secure the roof rafters and trusses to the top horizontal wall plate. Sometimes called a hurricane clip.

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Tee A "T" shaped plumbing fitting.

Tempered Glass Strengthened. Tempered glass will not shatter nor create shards, but will "pelletize" like an automobile window. Required in tub and shower enclosures and locations, entry door glass and sidelight glass, and in a windows when the window sill is less than 16" to the floor.

Tempering Controlled heating and cooling of a material to alter its mechanical properties, a form of heat treatment.

Tenant Improvements
TI'S is a term used to define the interior improvements of the project after the Building Envelope is complete. TI'S usually include finish floor coverings; ceilings; partitions; doors, frames, hardware; fire protection; HVAC consisting of branch distribution duct work, control boxes, and registers; electrical consisting of lighting, switches, power outlets, phone/data outlets, exit and energy lighting; window coverings; general conditions; and the general contractor’s fee. The cost of tenant improvements are generally born by the tenant and the costs of tenant improvements will vary with every building, and with tenant requirements. (see Work Letter)

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Tenant's Rentable Square Feet
Usable square feet plus a percentage (the core factor) of the common areas on the floor, including hallways, bathrooms and telephone closets, and some main lobbies. Rent able square footage is the number on which a tenant's rent is usually based.

Tenant's Usable Square Feet
The square footage contained within the demising walls. (see Demising Walls)

Tendon A steel strand used for prestressing a concrete member.

Tensile Strength The ability of a structural material to withstand stretching forces.

Tensile Stress A stress caused by stretching of a material.

Tension A stretching force, to stretch.

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Tension Control Bolt A bolt tightened by means of a splined end that breaks off when the bolt shank has reached the required tension.

Termites- Wood eating insects that superficially resemble ants in size and general appearance, and live in colonies.

Termite shield- A shield, usually of galvanized metal, placed in or on a foundation wall or around pipes to prevent the passage of termites.

Terne An alloy of lead and tin used to coat sheets of carbon steel or stainless steel used in the past for metal roofing sheet.

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Terra cotta- A ceramic material molded into masonry units.

Terrace Door A double glass door, one leaf of which is fixed and the other hinged to the fixed leaf at the centreline of the door.

Terrazzo A finish floor material consisting of concrete with an aggregate of marble chips selected for size or colour which is ground and polished smooth after curing.

Thatch A thick roof covering of reeds, straw, grasses or leaves.

Thermal Break A section of material with low thermal conductivity installed between metal components to retard the passage of heat through a wall or window assembly.

Thermal Bridge A component of higher thermal conductivity that conducts heat more rapidly through an insulated building assembly such as a steel stud in an insulated stud wall.

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Thermal Conductivity The rate at which a material conducts heat.

Thermal Emittance A unitless index, from 0 to 1, expressing a material’s tendency to radiate thermal energy as its temperature rises in realtion to surrounding surfaces.

Thermal Insulation A material that greatly retards the passage of heat.

Thermal Resistance The resistance of a material or assembly to the conduction of heat.

Thermochromic Glass Glass that changes its optical properties in response to to changes in temperature.

Thermoplastic In plastics, having the property of softening when heated and rehardening when cooled, weldable by heat or solvents.

Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO) A thermoplastic single ply roof membrane material made from blends of polyethylene, polypropylene and ethylene propylene rubber polymers.

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Thermoply Exterior laminated sheathing nailed to the exterior side of the exterior walls. Normally ¼ " thick, 4 X 8 or 4 x 10 sheets with an aluminumized surface.

Thermosetting In plastics not having the property of softening when heated, not heat fusible.

Thermostat A device which relegates the temperature of a room or building by switching heating or cooling equipment on or off.

Thickset Tile Ceramic tile installed on a thick bed of Portland cement mortar also called mortar bed or mud set tile.

Thinset Tile Ceramic tile bonded to a solid base with a thin application of Portland cement mortar or organic adhesive.

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Three Dimensional Shingles Laminated shingles. Shingles that have added dimensionality because of extra layers or tabs, giving a shake-like appearance. May also be called "architectural shingles".

Threshold The bottom metal or wood plate of an exterior door frame. Generally they are adjustable to keep a tight fit with the door slab.

Thrust A lateral or inclined force resulting from the structural action of an arch, vault, dome, suspension structure or rigid frame.

Thrust Block A wooden block running perpendicular to the stringers at the bottom of a stair, whose function is to hold the stringers in place.

Tie A device for holding two parts of a construction together, a structural device that acts in tension.

Tieback A tie, one end of which is anchored in the ground with the other end used to support sheeting around an excavation.

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Tie Beam A reinforced concrete beam cast as part of a masonry wall whose primary purpose is to hold the wall together, especially against seismic loads, or cast between a number of isolated foundation elements to maintain their relative positions.

Tier The portion of a multistory steel building frame supported by one set of fabricated column pieces, commonly two stories in height.

Tie Rod A steel rod that acts in tension.

Tile A fired clay product that is thinner in cross section than a brick, either a thin, flat element (ceramic or quarry tile) a thin curved element (roofing tile). It may be a hollow element with thin walls (flue, tile, tile pipe, structured clay tile), also a thin flat element of anther material such as an acoustical ceiling unit or a resilient floor unit.

Tilt/Turn Window A window that opens either by rotating its sash about its vertical centreline or as a hopper.

Tilt/Up Construction A method of constructing concrete walls in which panels are cast and cured flat on a floor slab then tilted up to their final position.

Timber Standing trees, a large piece of dimension lumber.

Time
A provision in a construction contract by the owner that punctual completion within the time limits or periods in the contract is a vital part of the contract performance and that failure to perform on time is a breach and the injured party is entitled to damages in the amount of loss sustained.

Time-and-a-half
A term meaning any individuals normal billing hourly rate is increased by a multiple of 1.5 following predetermined normal working hours.

Time and Materials Contract A construction contract which specifies a price for different elements of the work such as cost per hour of labor, overhead, profit, etc. A contract which may not have a maximum price, or may state a 'price not to exceed'.

Time of Completion
The date or number of calendar or working days stated in the contract to substantially complete the work for a specific project. (see Date of Substantial Completion)

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Tinner Another name for the heating contractor.

Tinted Glass Glass that is colored with pigments, dyes or other admixtures.

Tip Up The downspout extension that directs water (from the home's gutter system) away from the home. They typically swing up when mowing the lawn, etc.

Titanium A strong corrosion resistant nonferrous metal, silver gray in colour.

Title Evidence (usually in the form of a certificate or deed) of a person's legal right to ownership of a property.

Title Insurance
Title Insurance policies typically insure a home buyer against any title-search errors or mistakes, and against loss due to
disputes over property ownership. Title Insurance can additionally offer protection to the lender under similar circumstances.
The cost of title insurance is usually a set value per thousand of dollars of the total loan amount.

Title Search
A person who reviews and evaluates an application for a loan or insurance policy

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TJI or TJ Manufactured structural building component resembling the letter "I". Used as floor joists and rafters. I-joists include two key parts: flanges and webs. The flange or from of the I joist may be made of laminated veneer lumber or dimensional lumber, usually formed into a 1 ½" width. The web or center of the I-joist is commonly made of plywood or oriented strand board (OSB). Large holes can be cut in the web to accommodate duct work and plumbing waste lines. I-joists are available in lengths up to 60'' long.

Toe Nailing To drive a nail in at a slant. Method used to secure floor joists to the plate.

Tongue and Groove An interlocking edge detail for joining planks or panels.

Tooling The finishing of a mortar joint or sealant joint by pressing and compacting it to create a particular profile.

Toothed Plate A multipronged fastener made from a stamped sheet metal, used to join members of a lightwood wood truss.

Top chord The upper or top member of a truss.

Top Hinged Inswinging Window A window that opens inward on hinges on or near its head.

Topping A thin layer of concrete cast over the top of a floor deck.

Topping Out Placing the last member in a building frame.

Top plate Top horizontal member of a frame wall supporting ceiling joists, rafters, or other members.

Topside Vent A water protected opening through a roof membrane to relieve pressure from water vapour that may accumulate beneath the membrane.

Torque Twisting action, moment.

Torsional Stress Stress resulting from the twisting of a structural member.

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Touched Sanded In plywood, lightly sanded to produce a smoother flatter surface.

Tracheids The longitudinal cells in a softwood.

Traffic Deck A walking surface placed on top of a roof membrane.

Transit Mixed Concrete Concrete mixed in a drum on the back of a truck as it is transported to the building site.

Transmittal
A written document used to identify information being sent to a receiving party. The transmittal is usually the cover sheet for the information being sent and includes the name, telephone/FAX number and address of the sending and receiving parties. The sender may include a message or instructions in the transmittal. It is also important to include the names of other parties the information is being sent to on the transmittal form.

Transmitter (garage door) The small, push button device that causes the garage door to open or close.

Trap A plumbing fitting that holds water to prevent air, gas, and vermin from backing up into a fixture.

Travel Time
Wages paid to workmen under certain union contracts and under certain job conditions for the time spent in traveling from their place of residence to and from the job.

Travertine A richly patterned, marble like form of limestone, classified by ASTM C119 in the Other Stone Group.

Tread The walking surface board in a stairway on which the foot is placed.


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Treated Lumber A wood product which has been impregnated with chemical pesticides such as CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) to reduce damage from wood rot or insects. Often used for the portions of a structure which are likely to be in contact with soil and water. Wood may also be treated with a fire retardant.

Tremie A large funnel with a tube attached used to deposit concrete in deep forms or beneath water or slurry.

Trim (plumbing, heating, electrical) The work that the "mechanical" contractors perform to finish their respective aspects of work, and when the home is nearing completion and occupancy.

Trim Accessories Casing beads, corner beads, expansion joints and other devices used to finish edges and corners of a plaster wall or ceiling.

Trim- Interior The finish materials in a building, such as moldings applied around openings (window trim, door trim) or at the floor and ceiling of rooms (baseboard, cornice, and other moldings). Also, the physical work of installing interior doors and interior woodwork, to include all handrails, guardrails, stair way balustrades, mantles, light boxes, base, door casings, cabinets, countertops, shelves, window sills and aprons, etc. Exterior- The finish materials on the exterior a building, such as moldings applied around openings (window trim, door trim), siding, windows, exterior doors, attic vents, crawl space vents, shutters, etc. Also, the physical work of installing these materials.

Trimmer The vertical stud that supports a header at a door, window, or other opening.

Trimmer Joist A joist that supports a header around an opening in a floor or roof frame.

Trowel A thin, flat, steel tool either pointed or rectangular provided with a handle and is hand held . It is used to manipulate mastic, mortar, plaster or concrete. A machine whose rotating steel plates are used to finish concrete slabs, to use a trowel.


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Truss An engineered and manufactured roof support member with "zig-zag" framing members. Does the same job as a rafter but is designed to have a longer span than a rafter.

Trustee
A person who holds title to property on behalf of another.

Tub trap Curved, "U" shaped section of a bath tub drain pipe that holds a water seal to prevent sewer gasses from entering the home through tubs water drain.

Tuck Pointing Traditionally a method of finishing masonry joints using mortars of different colours to artificially create the appearance of a more refined joint. In contemporary usage may be used interchangeably with repointing.

Tunnel Kiln A kiln through which clay products are passed on railroad cars.

Turn of Nut Method A method of achieving the correct tightness in a high strength bolt by first tightening the nut snugly then turning it a specified additional fraction of a turn.

Turnkey A term used when the subcontractor provides all materials (and labor) for a job.

Turpentine A petroleum, volatile oil used as a thinner in paints and as a solvent in varnishes.

Two Way Action Bending of a slab or deck in which bending stresses are approximately equal in the two principal directions of the structure.

Two Way Concrete Joist System A reinforced concrete framing system in which columns directly support an orthogonal grid of intersecting joints.

Two Way Flat Slab A reinforced concrete framing system in which columns with mushroom capitals and/or drop panels directly support a two way slab that is planar on both of its surfaces.

Type X Gypsum Board A fiber reinforced gypsum board used where greater fire resistance is required.

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